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CROP VARIETIES

[/vc_column_text][vc_column_text el_class=”column-title title-header”]Area of about 5500 hectares brought under cultivation by the interventions of CSIR in aroma mission will further catalyse cultivation of MAPs in about additional 60,000 hectares. The mission will promote cultivation of aromatic plants, which are in great demand by aroma industry. This would provide substantial benefits to the farmers in achieving higher profits, utilization of wastelands and protection of their crops from wild/grazing animals. Following nine high aromatic crops have been identified by CSIR-IIIM for extension on 2000 hectares of land under CSIR-Aroma Mission.[/vc_column_text][vc_tta_accordion style=”flat” gap=”4″ c_icon=”triangle” active_section=”-1″ collapsible_all=”true”][vc_tta_section title=”Lemongrass hybrids `{`CKP-25`}`, `{`CPK-F2-38 Kalam`}`” tab_id=”1533876354380-562997e5-106b”][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][vc_single_image image=”1507″][vc_column_text]

Lemongrass “CKP-25”

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Lemongrass “CPK-F2-38”

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:          Citral (a&b) (80-85%)

Type of area:                            Irrigated/rain-fed areas

Extension activity:                  J&K, Punjab, Haryana, UP, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, MP, Chhattisgarh, HP, Tamil Nadu[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop Details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Lemongrass “CKP-25”

Common nameLemongrass
Botanical
name
Cymbopogon khasianus (Hack.) Stapf. ex Bar x Cymbopogon pendulus (Nees ex Steudel) Will.
VarietyCKP-25
UsesEssential oil used in perfumery, flavour and fragrance industry.
Major chemical
constituents
Beta-Citral (80-85%), CIS-Ocimene (5%), Geraniol butyrate (1-2%).
ClimateRequires warm and humid climate with sufficient sunlight and average annual rainfall between 100 and 300 cm. High temperature is conducive for development of oil and results in high yields.
LandWell drained sandy loam and clay soils are suitable for its cultivation. The land should be ploughed 3 - 4 times and planked twice. Weeds should be removed and beds of 250 to 300 m2 size should be made with proper irrigation channels. The beds require levelling before planting.
PropagationCrop is propagated through uprooted slips.
Plantation3-4 slips are planted at one spot at a spacing of 40 cm x 40 cm and irrigated immediately afterwards. There are two planting seasons i.e., February-March and September-October. The crop once planted remains profitable for 4-5 years.
Manure and FertilizersThe crop responds well to organic manures. The fertilizer required for raising a good crop is 180 kg/ha nitrogen, 80 kg/ha P2O5 and 120 kg/ha K2O in 1st year. The nitrogen quantity should be increased up to 340 kg / ha from 2nd year onwards. The entire quantity of P2O5 and K2O should be applied at the time of planting as a basal dose. The entire quantity of nitrogen applied in a year should be split into doses of 70 kg/ha, 50 kg/ha and 60 kg/ha for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd harvests in the 1st year, 80 kg/ha, 80 kg/ha, 60 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha and 45 kg/ha for the 1st, 2nd , 3rd , 4th, and 5th harvests in the 2nd and subsequent years.
IrrigationIrrigation should be done during the pre- and post-monsoon periods. At least one irrigation during March, one or two during April and at least five to six during May and June, and three to four during the rest of the season. Irrigate the crop within a day or two after harvesting.
HarvestingThe harvesting season starts in May and continues up to December. First harvest at 120-135 days of planting, thereafter harvesting is done at an interval of 45 to 55 days. Five to six cuttings can be obtained in the 1 and 2 year crops respectively. Harvesting of crop should be avoided during heavy rains.
YieldUnder conditions of intense care, fresh herbage obtained in 1st year would be 50-60 t/ha; 2nd to 4th year 80 -85 t/ha;
5th year onwards 60 -65 t/ha. On an average recovery of oil in CKP-25 variety ranges between 0.50 to 0.60 % and thus yields 280 to 300 kg/ha in 1st year and 370 to 400 kg/ha in 2nd and subsequent years.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 2,52,000 to Rs. 2,70,000 in 1st year, and from Rs. 3,33,000 to Rs. 3,60,000 in 2nd and subsequent years.

Lemongrass “CPK-F2-38”

Common nameLemongrass
Botanical
name
Cymbopogon pendulus (Hack.) Stapf.ex Bar x Cymbopogon khasianus (Nees ex Steudel) Will.
VarietyCPK-F2-38 Kalam. It is an improved F2 derivative of F1 hybrid suitable for cultivation on both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. This variety was released by the Hon’ble Ex -President of India Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam in the year 2003.
UsesEssential oil used in perfumery, flavour and fragrance industry.
Major chemical
constituents
Citral (75-80%).
ClimateWarm tropical and subtropical humid climate with sufficient sunlight and annual rainfall ranging from 100 to 300 cm. High temperatures are conducive for development of oil resulting in higher yields.
LandWell drained sandy loam and clay soils are suitable for its cultivation. The land should be ploughed 3 - 4 times and planked twice. Weeds should be removed and beds of 250 to 300 m2 size should be made with proper irrigation channels. The beds require levelling before planting.
PropagationCrop is propagated through uprooted slips.
Plantation3-4 slips are planted at one spot at a spacing of 40 cm x 40 cm and irrigated immediately afterwards. There are two planting seasons i.e., February -March and September-October. The crop once planted remains profitable for 4 -5 years.
Manure and FertilizersA basal dose of 40 kg/ha of Phosphorus and 40 kg/ha of Potash is applied before plantation. Nitrogen at the rate of 80 kg/ha is given in the split doses when there is sufficient moisture in the field.
IrrigationUnder rainfed conditions, planting is usually preferred during the rainy season to enable better establishment of slips.
HarvestingFirst harvest is taken after 145 - 180 days of planting. Two cuttings in 1st year and three cuttings in subsequent years i.e., at an interval of 100 -120 days can be obtained from well -managed crop. Harvesting of crop should be avoided during the heavy rains.
YieldThe crop yields 17 -18 t/ha herbage, 75 -90 kg/ha of oil in the 1st year and from 2nd year onwards the yield increases to 36-38 t/ha herbage and 170-190 kg/ha of oil.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 75,000 to Rs. 90,000 in the 1st year, and from Rs. 1,70,000 to Rs. 1,90,000 in 2nd and subsequent years.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Rosagrass `{`RRL(J) CN-5`}`, Himrosa `{`IIIM (J) CK-10`}`” tab_id=”1533876624415-3366af85-cbb1″][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][vc_single_image image=”1512″][vc_column_text]

Rosagrass “RRL(J)CN-5”

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Rosagrass “IIIM(J)CK-10”

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:          CN-5: Geraniol (65-75%),Geranyl acetate (10-20%), CK-10: Geraniol (75-83%), Geranyl acetate (10-15%)

Type of area:                            Irrigated, Irrigated/ rain-fed areas

Extension activity:                  J&K, Punjab, Haryana, UP, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand, MP, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Rosagrass “RRL(J)CN-5”

Common nameRosagrass
Botanical
name
Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle
VarietyRL(J)CN-5
UsesEssential oil used in perfumery, flavour & fragrance industry.
Major chemical
constituents
Geraniol (45 - 60%), Geranyl acetate (15-25%), CIS-Ocimene (12-13%).
ClimateIt can be grown successfully in tropical, sub-tropical and sub -temperate climatic conditions.
LandIt can be established on poor sub -marginal lands with shallow soils, eroded river banks and bunds of agricultural fields.
PropagationThe crop is propagated vegetatively through uprooted slips.
PlantationSingle slip is planted per hole at 40 cm x 40 cm inter and intra row spacing. At least 62,500 slips are required for planting in an area of one hectare.
Manure and FertilizersThe crop responds well to application of FYM and chemical fertilizers. FYM @ 10 t/ha along with basal dose of 80 kg /ha of phosphorous, 60 kg/ha of potash and 20 -25 kg/ha of Zinc sulphate is mixed at the time of land preparation. It is nitrogen exhaustive crop and require 200 kg/ha nitrogen (as urea) during 1st year and 250 kg/ha during 2nd and subsequent years. Nitrogen should be applied as top dressing in 2-3 split doses during the cropping season.
IrrigationCrop requires maximum irrigation of 5- 6 times during the summer season, while 3 to 4 irrigations are sufficient from September to November. Irrigation is required within two days of each harvest except the harvest during rainy season.
Harvesting1st year plantation gives 2 - 3 cuttings depending upon the period of planting, while four to five cuttings can be taken in the 2nd and subsequent years. When crop is planted in February -March, the 1st cutting is taken after 130 -150 days after planting and thereafter crop is harvested at an interval of 60 to 75 days.
Yield1st year plantation gives an average of 50 -55 t/ha of fresh herbage, while 2nd year plantation yields 65 -72 t/ha of fresh herbage. 200 to 220 kg/ha oil can be obtained.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 2,00,000 to Rs. 2,20,000 in 1st year, and from Rs. 2,50,000 to 2,80,000 in 2nd and subsequent years.

Rosagrass “IIIM(J)CK-10”

Common nameRosagrass
Botanical
name
Cymbopogon khasianus (Hack) Stapf. ex Bor
VarietyIIIM(J)CK-10 Himrosa
UsesEssential oil used in perfumery, flavour and fragrance industry.
Major chemical
constituents
Geraniol (70 - 75%), cis -Ocimene (10 - 15%), Geranyl acetate (5 -10%).
ClimatePrefers tropical and subtropical environmental conditions. It responds well under rainfed conditions because of its hi gh drought tolerance capicity coupled with faster regeneration and early vigorous growth. Warm and humid climate with sufficient sunlight and 800 to 1500 mm annual rainfall are ideal for its growth.
LandIt grows well on drained medium loam and light sandy loamy soils. It can be grown on soils with wide range of pH conditions ranging from 5 to 9 pH i.e., from moderate acidic to alkaline soils.
PropagationThe crop is propagated vegetatively through uprooted slips.
PlantationAbout 50,000 slips ar e required for 1 ha of land, which are planted at a distance of 50 cm x 50 cm within and between the rows. The most preferred season for planting is during rains preferably in the month of July.
Manure and FertilizersA basal dose of 40 kg/ha of potash is applied before plantation. Nitrogen is always applied as top dressing in 2 - 3 split doses during the cropping season. 60 kg/ha of Nitrogen (as urea) is required during its growing period. 20 kg/ha Nitrogen is given when crop is 2 months old and the rest is applied after each harvest in equal doses.
IrrigationUsually in rainfed conditions no irrigation is required; however, depending upon the quantity of moisture available in the soil at the time of plantation individual plant is watered.
Harvesting1st year plantation gives 2 -3 cuttings depending upon the period of planting, while 4 to 5 cuttings are taken in the 2nd and subsequent years. When crop is planted in February-March, the 1st cutting is taken after 130 -150 days after planting and thereafter crop is harvested at an interval of 60 to 75 days.
Yield1st year plantation gives an average of 50 -55 t/ha of fresh herbage. 2nd year plantation yields 65 -72 t/ha of fresh herbage. 130 to 180 kg/ha oil can be obtained during 1st year, while in 2nd and subsequent years 240 to 250 kg/ha oil can be obtained.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 1,30,000 to Rs. 1,80,000 in 1st year, and from Rs.2,40,000 to Rs.2,50,000 in 2nd and subsequent years.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Lavender Lavendula officinalis `{`RRL-12`}`” tab_id=”1533876671733-62ff6f1e-c3eb”][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_single_image image=”1515″][vc_column_text]

Lavender “RRL-12”

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:          Linalool (19.2%), Linalyl acetate (20-45%), 1,8 Cineol, Borneol, Levendulyl acetate

Type of area:                      Rain-fed, sub-tropical/temperate regions/ snow bound areas

Extension activity:                J&K, North Eastern States[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Lavender

Common nameKashmir Lavender
Botanical
name
Lavandula angustifolia Mill.(Synonym: Lavandula officinalis L.)
VarietyRRL-12
UsesEssential oil used in high value perfumery Industry
Major chemical
constituents
Linalool, linalyl acetate, 1,8 - cineole, borneol, caryophyllene, terpineol, ocimenes, Lavandulyl acetate.
ClimateTemperate region especially in snow-bound areas.
SoilWell-drained, full sun and slightly alkaline soils with a pH between 6.7 and 7.3. This plant does not tolerate excessive soil moisture or humidity. To further improve drainage it is planted on raised beds or on the slopes.
PropagationPlant is propagated through cuttings. Propagation through seeds is very low.
PlantationTransplantation in the fields is done either in November -December or in early spring (February -March) at a spacing of 75 cm × 75 cm with a plant density of 18,000 plants per hectare.
Manure and FertilizersWell rotten FYM @10 t/ha + NPK @ 40:90:40 kg/ha.
IrrigationThe crop should be irrigated as per the requirement. Even in rainfed areas it depends on seasonal rains and grows very well.
HarvestingHarvesting of flowers is done by a sharp sickle on bright sunny days when 50%-60% florets are open. About 40-60 q/ha of flowers are obtained after 3rd year.
Yield35-40 kg/ha essential oil is obtained after 2nd year onwards.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 2,50,000 to Rs. 3,00,000 per hectare.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Rosemary Rosmarianus officinalis” tab_id=”1533876704738-7f8dab91-eb40″][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_single_image image=”1519″][vc_column_text]

Rosemary

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:          p-Cymene (44.02%), Linalool (20.5%), gamma-
Terpinene (16.62%), Thymol (1.81%)

Type of area:                      Rain-fed/irrigated land without water logging in soil

Extension activity:                J&K, North Eastern States, HP[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Rosemary

Common nameRosemary
Botanical
name
Rosmarinus officinalis L.
UsesFlavour and fragrance industries and as culinary herb.
Major chemical
constituents
alpha-pinene (16%), camphene (8.12%), beta -Pinene (6.04%), myrecene (3.01%), 1,8 cineole (20.12%), camphor (21.49%), borneol (1.71%) and bornyl acetate (2.61%).
ClimateTemperate to subtropical climatic conditions.
LandWell drained sandy loam soils.
PropagationVegetatively through cuttings and through seeds.
Plantation6750 plants per hectare at a distance of 1.0 m between plants and 1.5 m between rows.
Manure and FertilizersWell rotten FYM @10 t/ha, NPK @ 30:70:40 kg/ha.
IrrigationFrequent irrigation is required at the time of transplantation. Water logging should be avoided.
HarvestingJuly/August.
Yield20 – 30 kg/ha essential oil.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 1,80,000 to Rs 2,10,000 per hectare.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Jammu Monarda `{`IIIM(J)MC-02″ tab_id=”1533876739250-1cd1deb5-77ac”][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_single_image image=”1525″][vc_column_text]

Jammu Monarda “IIIM(J)MC-02”

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:          Thymol (62-70%), Carvacrol (2-6%), p-Cymene (12-20%), r-Terpinene (14 -20%)

Type of area:                      Rain-fed areas/irrigated lands

Extension activity:                J&K, Punjab, Haryana, UP, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, HP, North East States[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Jammu Monarda

Common nameLemon Beebalm.
Botanical
name
Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag.
VarietyIIIM(J)MC-02
UsesEssential oil used in pharmaceutical, flavour and fragrance Industry.
Major chemical
constituents
Thymol (55-75%)
ClimateBeing a Rabi crop it is transplanted from nursery to field in November-December when ambient temperature is around 20-25°C.
LandModerate fertile and well drained loams to sandy loam soils with good water holding capacity are preferred. Water logged conditions should be avoided.
PropagationThrough seeds and seedlings.
PlantationAbout 200-300 g of seeds are enough to raise seedlings for planting on one hectare of land. The seeds can be sown in nursery beds during 1st week of October and then transplanted during 3rd week of November or 1st week of December at the spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm line to line and plant to plant.
Manure and FertilizersThe optimum fertilizer dose recommended for this crop is 100 kg/ha Nitrogen (as urea) and 50 kg/ha muriate of potash (K2O) and 50 kg/ha single superphosphate (P2O5). Nitrogen is applied in three to four equal split doses.
IrrigationFrequency of irrigation depends upon the moisture status of the soil and weather conditions prevailing during the crop season. Sometimes this crop requires maximum irrigation of 8-10 times for the successful crop production.
HarvestingHarvesting should be done in the month of April -May at full blooming stage. Rainy periods should be avoided for harvesting, which may result in low essential oil recovery as well as poor quality of oil.
YieldOn an average 100 - 125 kg/ha of essential oil can be obtained.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 1,00,000 to Rs. 1,50,000 per hectare.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Salvia sclarea” tab_id=”1533876782762-83452393-aa50″][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_single_image image=”1529″][vc_column_text]

Salvia sclarea

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:          Linalyl acetate (35.9%), Germacrene D (13.3%), Linalool (12.8%), Sclareol (9.4%)

Type of area:                            Rain-fed area/ irrigated lands

Extension activity:                  J&K, North Eastern States[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Salvia sclarea

Common nameClary Sage
Botanical
name
Salvia sclarea L.
UsesPerfumery and cosmetic industries.
Major chemical
constituents
Linalool (30%), linalyl acetate (52 - 64 %), alpha – terpineol (1.6), neryl acetate (2.0%), geranyl acetate (3.8%), sclareol (0.25%).
ClimateTemperate to sub -tropical climatic conditions.
LandWell drained sandy loam soils with full sun are required.
PropagationThrough seeds and seedlings.
Plantation40000 plants per hectare with 50cm x 50cm inter and intra row spacing.
Manure and FertilizersNPK@ 90:30:50 kg/ha. Well rotten FYM @15 t/ha can be added at the time of ploughing for higher yields.
IrrigationFrequent at the time of transplantation and intermittently thereafter.
HarvestingAugust/September.
Yield18-20 kg/ha essential oil.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 2,00,000 to Rs. 2,20,000 per hectare over a period of 2 years.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Mentha species Mentha longifolia `{`RRL(J)ML-4`}`, Mentha piperata `{`RRL(J) MT-94″ tab_id=”1533876803080-2f87e72d-2a35″][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_single_image image=”1534″][vc_column_text]

Mentha Species

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:         Menthol (70-82%), Menthone (25%), Linalool
(70-80%), I-carvone (60-72%)

Type of area:                             Rain-fed area/ irrigated lands

Extension activity:                 J&K, Punjab, UP, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, Haryana[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Mentha species

Common nameAnant carvomint.
Botanical
name
Mentha longifolia (L) Hudson var. incana (Willd) Dinson
VarietyRRL(J)ML-4
UsesEssential oil used in pharmaceutical, flavour & fragrance industry.
Major chemical
constituents
L-carvone, Limonene.
ClimateRequires ample sunshine and rainfall during harvesting period. Areas with average annual rainfall of 95 -105 cm and average temperature of up to 40°C associated with relative humidity ranging from 50 to 75% are considered suitable for its cultivation.
LandLoam to sandy loam soils are considered ideal for its cultivation. Soil pH should be in the range of 6.5-8.0 with proper drainage.
PropagationThrough rooted suckers.
PlantationSuckers should be planted from January to mid February. Underground stolons (runners or root stock) pieces 5.0 to 7.5 cm in length are placed end to end in furrows and distance from line to line at 40 cm and covered with soil.
Manure and FertilizersAt the time of field preparation average fertile soil needs 10 t/ha FYM. Basal dose of 60 kg/ha P2 O5 and 60 kg/ha K2O is recommended. Nitrogen (as urea) at a dose of 125 kg/ha is applied in 3 equal split doses for getting better fresh herbage as well as essential oil.
IrrigationNormally 10 -12 irrigations are required for successful crop production. Irrigation is given at 12-15 days interval in the early period of crop growth (February -March) and at an interval of 10 days during peak summer months (April -June). In light textured soil weekly irrigation is required. Water logging must be avoided by providing adequate drainage both for irrigation and rainfall.
Harvesting1st harvest should be done between 100 -110 days after planting of suckers when crop exhibits 50% blooming. An interval of 65 to 70 days is recommended between 1st & 2nd and 2nd & 3rd harvests. Harvesting should be avoided during rainy periods which may result in low oil recovery and comparatively poor quality of oil. Direct fired hydro -still or steam distillations are ideal and takes 3.0 to 4.0 h for distillation process and complete recovery of the oil.
YieldAverage fresh herb yield is 42 to 44 t/ha.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 1,50,000 to Rs. 1,95,000 per hectare.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Ocimum species `{`RRL OG-14`}`, `{`RRL OB-15`}`” tab_id=”1533876818354-a1cd7152-ff13″][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][vc_single_image image=”1536″][vc_column_text]

Indian Basil Tulsi

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][vc_single_image image=”1537″][vc_column_text]

Clove Tulsi

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:          Linalool (70-75%), Methyl
cinnamate (80-85%),Eugenol (80-85%), Methyl chavicol (80-85%), Elemien (65-70%), Thymol (65-75%)

Type of area:                           Rain-fed/ Irrigated lands

Extension activity:                  J&K, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, MP, Haryana, HP, Tamil Nadu[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Ocimum species

Common nameIndian Basil Tulsi, Clove Tulsi
Botanical
name
Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum L., Ocimum gratissimum L. var. clocimum
VarietyRRL-OB-15, RRL-OG-14
Major chemical
constituents
Methyl chavicol (85 - 90%), which is Eugenol (80 - 85%), an important constituents characterized for its conversion into essential oil isolate trans-anethol.
UsesEssential oil used in pharmaceutical, flavour and fragrance industry.
ClimateRequires ample sunshine and rainfall during harvesting period. Areas with average rainfall from 95 to 105 cm and average temperature up to 40°C associated with relative humidity ranging from 50 to 75% are considered suitable for its cultivation.
LandLoam to sandy loam soils are considered ideal for its cultivation. Soil pH should be in the range of 6.5 to 8.0 with proper drainage.
PropagationThrough seeds and seedling. It can go very well as intercropping in Mentha and Potato crops, depending upon the availability of farmer’s land.
PlantationSeedling should be planted from January to mid February. Underground stolons (runners or root stock) pieces 5.0 to 7.5 cm in length are placed end to end in furrows with 40 cm distance from line to line and covered with soil.
Manure and FertilizersAt the time of field preparation, average fertile soil needs 10 t/ha FYM. Basal dose of 60 kg/ha P2O5 and 60 kg/ha K2O is recommended. Nitrogen (as urea) dose of 125 kg/ha is applied in 3 equal split doses for getting better fresh herbage as well as essential oil.
IrrigationNormally 10 -12 irrigations are required for successful crop production. Irrigation is given at 12 - 15 days interval in the early period of crop growth (February-March) and at an interval of 10 days during peak summer months (April-June). In light textured soil weekly irrigation is required. The water logging must be avoided by providing adequate drainage both for irrigation and rainfall.
Harvesting1st harvest should be done between 100 - 110 days after planting of suckers when crop exhibits 50% blooming. An interval of 80 to 90 days has been recommended between 1st & 2nd and 2nd & 3rd harvests. Harvesting should be avoided during rainy periods which may result in low oil recovery and comparatively poor quality of oil. Direct fired hydro - still or steam distillations are ideal and takes 3.0 to 4.0 h for distillation process and complete recovery of the oil.
YieldThe fresh herb yield is 42 – 44 t/ha.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 1,50,000 to Rs. 1,95,000 per hectare.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Pelargonium graveolens Geranium `{`PGIIIM-101`}`” tab_id=”1533876832088-bd9639a9-0157″][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_single_image image=”1531″][vc_column_text]

Pelargonium graveolens

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_text_separator title=”Overview” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]Characteristic features:          Citronellol (42.5%), Geraniol (19.90%)

Type of area:                           Irrigated lands

Extension activity:                  J&K, North Eastern States[/vc_column_text][vc_text_separator title=”Crop details” title_align=”separator_align_left” color=”sandy_brown” border_width=”2″ css_animation=”fadeInLeft”][vc_column_text]

Pelargonium graveolens Geranium

Common nameRose scented geranium
Botanical
name
Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.
VarietyPG-IIIM-101
UsesEssential oil used in pharmaceutical, flavour and fragrance industry.
Major chemical
constituents
Citronellol (25.77 %), Geraniol (20.81%), Linalool (11.94 %), Citronellylformate (8.04 %), isomenthone (7.58 %).
ClimateGrows best under temperate and subtropical climates, requires well -drained soils with an annual rainfall ranging from 60 to 75 cm and temperature from 20 to 30 ºC.
LandWell-drained clay loam soil with a pH range of 5.0 to 8.0 is required with proper drainage.
PropagationBest way to propagate rose scented geranium is by cuttings. Cuttings of 5 to 10 cm length are taken. The bottom two thirds are stripped from leaves. The cutting is inserted in well prepared soil enriched with FYM.
PlantationPlants should be transplanted in the months of February - March. The spacing between the rooted plants should be 35 - 40 cm and rows should be 45 - 55 cm.
Manure and FertilizersA basal fertiliser application containing Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Sulphur may be applied annually, corresponding to the soil analysis results.
IrrigationIrrigation is given at 5-10 days interval in the early period of plant growth and at an interval of 10 - 15 days during February - March. The water logging must be avoided by providing adequate drainage both for irrigation and rainfall.
HarvestingRose geranium is usually harvested once a year under temperate conditions and 2 times under subtropical conditions, depending on the geographical area. Harvesting should be avoided during rainy periods which may result in low oil recovery and comparatively poor quality of oil.
YieldThe rose geranium leaves contain between 0.15 % to 0.20% volatile oil, fresh herb yield is 20–25 t/ha.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 1,75,000 to Rs. 2,15,000 per hectare.

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Wild Marigold

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Common nameWild Marigold
Botanical
name
Tagetes minuta L.
UsesEssential oil used in perfumery and flavor industry.
Major chemical
constituents
Dihydrotagetone, Ocimene, Tagetones, Ocimenone.
ClimateMoist temperate regions with cool nights during flowering season.
LandMedium light to medium heavy soils, free from all weeds are ideal for getting higher crop yields.
PropagationThrough seeds and seedlings. Plant to plant spacing of 15-30 cm and row to row spacing of 30-45 cm is suggested for line sowing.
Plantation3 kg seeds per hectare required for direct sowing or 1 kg seeds per hectare required for raising crop through nursery.
Manure and FertilizersNPK @ 120:60:40 per hectare in addition to 20-30 t/ha well rotten FYM is applied at the time of land preparation.
IrrigationWell drained soils are required as plant does not survive under waterlogged conditions. Irrigation is required during pre- and post- monsoon periods to retain adequate moisture in th soil for good development of the plants. Crop sown during spring requires 3-4 irrigations per month during summer and from September to November only 2-3 irrigations per month are sufficient till maturity.
HarvestingThe harvesting is done only once at full bloom or at seed maturity stage in the months of September to November.
YieldUnder temperate conditions herb yields ranges from 100 to 250 quintals/ha and oil yield ranges from 40 to 50 kg/ha.
Economic ReturnNet profit ranges from Rs. 2,00,000 to Rs. 2,50,000 per hectare

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